In Sri Lanka , the yellow pages are known as the Rainbow Pages , or the silver page.
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In Australia, it is renamed as Yellow in A particular yellow pages is a print directory which provides an alphabetical listing of businesses within a specific geographical area, e. Traditionally these directories have been published by the local phone company, but there are numerous independent directory publishers. Some yellow pages publishers focus on a particular demographic, e. Yellow pages directories are usually published annually, and distributed for free to all residences and businesses within a given coverage area. The majority of listings are plain and in small black text.
The yellow pages publishers generate profit by selling advertising space or listings under each heading. Advertising may be sold by a direct sales force or by approved agencies CMR's. Available advertising space varies among publishers and ranges from bold names up to four color twin page ads "double trucks". Business listings used for publication are obtained by several methods. Local phone companies that publish yellow pages directories rely on their own customer lists and include business listings that are provided by incumbent local exchange carriers ILECs.
Business owners that utilize phone services other than the local phone company typically a Bell Company should make certain that their information has been sent to the publisher for printing in upcoming directories.
Advertising in yellow pages directories requires payment in full prior to printing or may be billed monthly over the life of the contract, which is usually 12 months. Typically, a sales representative will assist the customer in creating their ad design and provides a Proof Copy for review and approval.
Almanacs and directories: Search directories online 1900-1973
Advertisers should be aware that many contracts have automatic renewal clauses and require action on the part of the advertiser to end future billing. Yellow pages print usage is reported to be declining with both advertisers and shoppers increasingly turning to Internet search engines and online directories.
These online versions are referred to as IYP or Internet yellow pages. Independent ad agencies or Internet marketing consultants can assist business owners in determining sound opportunities for yellow pages advertising and provide objective information on usage, possession and preferences. Archived yellow pages and telephone directories are important tools in local historical research, trademark litigation,  and genealogy.
Alexander began a freelance career as an illustrator and commercial designer.
He formed a long association with the New England Telephone Company lasting thirty-one years. In he designed the "walking fingers" logo and within a year it became the national trademark for their yellow pages. The Bell System later applied for a trademark on the logo but had their trademark denied on the grounds that it "had become a generic indicator of the yellow pages without regard to any particular source. In some countries, the familiar "walking fingers" logo is not protected as a trademark and may be used by anyone.
This logo is used in varying forms by almost every yellow pages publisher; however, there are companies that use it to imitate mainstream publishers. In Belgium, the Republic of Ireland, Israel and the Netherlands the directory, although using the yellow pages logo, is called "Golden Pages". Online business directories are branded as IYP or Internet yellow pages. On a broader scale, they can be classified as vertical directories. There are consumer oriented and business oriented varieties. Providers of IYP offer online advertising. According to several reports the search term "yellow pages" was in the top 5 highest revenue generator of all search terms in Google's AdWords program in This made "yellow pages" one of the most searched for things on the Internet in Yet, from its inception, the nature of telephone directories was more complex than this.
Furthermore, as directories grew in size, reach, and financial worth, the compilation of telephone directories has become much more complicated still. To make a telephone directory in the twenty-first century entails the computational, network, and human resources, of some of the largest corporations in history—who remain on permanent guard against incursions from competitors wishing to enter the phone list market.
In this instance, elements are added alphabetically, rather than tacked on at the end, but fundamentally both the grocery list and the telephone directory readily assimilate additional members. Belknap One of things that can go awry with a list is that it can go on for too long: though without bounds in principle, the list has a load limit of what it can skilfully hold.
Exhaustive they might be, but the problem here is really that the telephone directory does not scan so well as literature. To do justice to lists, and their prevalence and central role in contemporary culture, I propose that it is much more productive to approach the telephone directory as a form of media. As I shall argue in what follows, the notion of list media is a much more fruitful way to assess the cultural practices, meanings, economies, and social correlates of telephone directories, and their implications for lists in our worlds. City directories coexisted with telephone directories, until the latter superseded them Shea From their own inception, telephone directories were also a relatively prosaic and useful, yet also socially complex, form of list.
Later, it simply became Telephone Directory with the name of the district covered. The first Australian telephone exchange and telephone directory was established in Sensis. The telephone directory helped subscribers to know and locate the details of an interlocutor with a telephone, in order to request the operator place a call:.
Since the telephone numbers can be used regardless of the point of origin of calls, the same directory information may be given to all subscribers. Directories for any region may be prepared in bulk and distributed throughout the Commonwealth as required. Also, subscribers may include their national numbers on letter-heads and in advertisements, providing a useful supplement to Departmental directories and a valuable advertising feature for the public. Turnbull, Hams, and Pollock As the telephone diffused more widely across Australia, the directory became an effective, if still incomplete, list of citizens living in a place.
As a public record, the telephone directory was harvested by many historians including, notably, Claude S. Fischer in his social history of the telephone in USA Fischer. Telephone directories also took on ambiguous social functions in households, especially during the decades when telephones were still not widely used——recalling that in , for instance, in Australia, there were still only 39 telephone instruments in service per head of population ABS , a figure that at least was significantly up from just over As well as constituting a network of calling parties, the list of telephone subscribers also held considerable commercial value.
The commercial and non-commercial interests of subscribers were probably blurred early on in the life of the telephone. With the importance of the telephone instrument for business——advertising and marketing enterprises, and their services and products, as well as contacting them——separate directories were provided for subscribers.
The first business listings were published in a trade listings section in the Adelaide White Pages in Sensis. Stand-alone commercial directories saw the creation of the Pink Pages as in, for instance, the the Melbourne classified telephone directory: complete listing of business, professional, commercial and trade subscribers PMG, Pink Pages. In the same year Telecom also established the National Directory Service to manage publication and distribution of its directories Sensis.
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With the deregulation of telecommunications around the world from the s onwards, the value of telephone directories and directories-associated services——such as directory assistance to subscribers——rose higher still. Typically, directories were provided free annually to subscribers, and their cost was covered by advertising revenue Busse and Rysman; Rysman. Directories were also dominated by telephone companies, with some competition from independent publishers who had not achieved much success Rysman.
Because of their relative lack of competition, and their significance in advertising for small business in particular——who often lacked the wherewithal or clout of large corporations to negotiate better deals——telephone directories became a target for deregulation.
Across the world, carriers that had previously enjoyed a monopoly on directories were obliged to unbundle their directory services, and to ensure that their information was made available, with appropriate safeguards, to other telecommunications competitors Chung. Directories could no longer be used as a privileged branding vehicle for the dominant carrier, and policy discussions ensued about how to deliver essential public and emergency information, while ensuring competition was possible.
Argument ensued as to whether the databases that now underlay directories were private goods, and thus fully open to competition, or whether they were actually public goods. Heated discussion ensued about the trade-offs among the different considerations of economic efficiency, stimulating competition, reasonable return to the carrier, and safeguard of appropriate intellectual property rights Richards. Before its final decommissioning in July , the French Minitel service was in the vanguard of public innovation allowing users to search data from directories Barr.
By the end of the s, ideas and prototypes for directories were fast emerging to deal with a range of associated issues posed for the future of directories by burgeoning email and Internet services, in the face of which listing people, organizations, and addresses was not as straightforward as it had become with telephone directories Patel and Ryan. At the turn of the century, then, the telephone directory was at a crossroads.
The telephone directory had itself become part of the bundle of essential telecommunications services that governments were prepared to intervene to ensure continued—as a right of citizens. This term for the telephone directory raises the interesting question of in what way a list may become a book. However, a much more significant question, as I suggested at the outset, is when does this genre of the list become a form of media. Manovich draws our attention to the dynamics driven by.
Why You Can’t Stop the White Pages
Manovich The database becomes the center of the creative process in the computer age […] It is not surprising, then, that databases occupy a significant, if not the largest, territory of the new media landscape. It is also about creating new kinds of media characteristics, functions, and possibilities for the telephone directory—parlaying the older form into the kind of agile, ductile, and extensible list media adequate to contemporary conditions. For telephone directories, as we shall see the possibilities and politics of the database as the foundation of a new, second stage of media society prove especially challenging.
As telephone directories transmuted into databases, furious battles broke out over the rights to these lists and the information they contained. Customarily, the list of telephone subscribers containing names, numbers, and often addresses were collected in a directory, published as a book, and widely distributed. Can this information be used by others for their own commercial purposes? Or is the telephone directory tantamount to proprietary information, owned and controlled by the telephone company that has collected it? A landmark legal case in the US relating to telephone directories involved a publishing company, Feist Publications.
Feist specialised in area-wide telephone directories, covering a number of contiguous calling areas——a much larger geographical range than directories offered by the phone companies. In order to compile its directory, Feist approached each of 11 telephone companies in the North-West Kansas area, requesting the right to licence their directory information.
One company, Rural Telephone Service declined to grant this right, so Feist copied and edited information from their directory, hiring staff to verify relevant listings and seek additional information Feist v Rural Telephone. Feist and the relevant Court of Appeals upheld the judgment.
However, the Supreme Court reversed this decision, on the basis that originality, the sine qua non of copyright, was not demonstrated:.